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浅谈润滑油的劣化
 
    How Oil Degrades油是如何退化的?
    When oil is used in a machine, the oil will degrade slowly during use over a period of time, depending on the type of lubricant, operating temperature, operating conditions and the physical environment. Lubricant degradation has negative effects on system lubrication and for example, hydraulic system pressures; these problems can result in serious consequences for the equipment performance and reduce reliability leading to breakdowns.
    当油被用在机械中时,超过一定时期,油将慢慢退化降解,而这取决于润滑油的类型,运行温度,运行状况和物理环境。润滑油退化对系统的润滑有负面影响,例如液压系统压力,这些问题对设备性能有严重后果,并降低可靠性导致故障。
    New lubricants are a formulation of base oil and chemical additives. Lubricant additives are present to counteract the majority of ill effects that contaminants cause.
    新的润滑油是由基础油和化学添加剂构成。润滑添加剂抵消了污染导致的大部分不良后果。
    Oil Refiners (Shell, Exxon-Mobil, etc.) produce base oils that can be categorised into groups which gives an indication of its oxidation characteristics. Where longer life is required, Group II, Group III and Group IV base oils are used by lubricant manufacturers. The Group of oil used is determined by the Original Equipment Manufacturers’ recommendations to satisfy the OEM requirements for equipment service and warranty purposes.
    炼油厂(壳牌、埃克森-美孚等)生产的基础油,能被根据氧化剂表现出的特性分类,在需要更长的使用寿命的地方,第二,三,四类基础油被润滑制造厂生产出来,油的类别由原始设备制造商确定,满足设备运行和保安的目的。
    Lubricant additives play a critical role in preventing lubricant degradation. The additives are essentially sacrificial in their role of protecting the base oil because the additives will degrade first while minimising any degradation to the base oil molecular properties.
    润滑油添加剂在防止油品退化上起到至关重要的作用,添加剂需要牺牲自身来保护基础油,因为即使基础油的分子发生很小的降解,添加剂也将首先被降解。
    After additive content is consumed by operational forces, the integrity of the hydrocarbon base oil becomes compromised because it is no longer protected by additives. At this point lubricant oxidation and the consequent ‘tell-tale’ discolouration commences.
    在添加剂被外力消耗后,烃类基础油的稳定性受到影响,因为它不再有添加剂保护了。这时候,润滑油氧化和随后发生“表明发生氧化的”变色现象出现。
    In short, the modern lubricant has been designed and formulated to meet the harsh operating environment of modern equipment. Contaminants can “unbalance” the lubricant and can result in less than optimum performance in its duty, increasing equipment damage which can ultimately lead to breakdowns.
    总之,现代润滑油已经被设计和按配方制造满足现代设备的苛刻的运行环境,污染物能够使润滑油失衡并导致运行中性能下降,增加了导致设备发生停机事故的风险。
    Types of lubricant additives include:添加剂主要包括:
    • Antioxidants (anti-oxidation)抗氧化剂
    • Antiwear agents抗磨剂
    • Viscosity index improvers粘度改善剂
    • Rust/corrosion inhibitors抗锈/蚀剂
    • Demulsifiers抗乳化剂
    • Extreme pressure additives极压添加剂
    • Antifoam agents消泡剂
    • Detergents/dispersants清洁剂/分散剂
    Additive depletion and oxidation添加剂消耗和氧化
    Antioxidant additives are the key to extending your lubricants’ remaining useful life by significantly limiting lubricant degradation from occurring, but antioxidants are depleted in the process. Being sacrificial, antioxidants deplete first before the base oil begins to oxidise and studies have shown that once 70% of the antioxidant additives in new oil have been depleted, physical changes within the lubricant begin to occur.    The resulting lubricant oxidation increases the lubricant viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN) and the formation of sludge and varnish.
    抗氧化剂是延长润滑油使用寿命的关键,可以明显的限制油品降解事故发生,但是抗氧化剂在生产中会消耗,抗氧化剂作为牺牲品,在基础油开始出现氧化前就开始分解,有研究表明一旦新油中的70%抗氧化剂被消耗掉,油中就开始出现物理变化。润滑油氧化的结果是粘度增加,总酸值(TAN)增加和清漆、油泥形成。
    By monitoring the antioxidant content of lubricant, Biokem detects additive depletion in advance and prevents lubricant oxidation, thickening and acid and varnish formation.
    通过监控油中抗氧化剂的含量,BIOKEM 发现添加剂提前发生氧化,并且阻止润滑油氧化、增稠和清漆形成。
    The additive depletion and oxidation reaction is accelerated by a number of factors, primarily:
    添加剂消耗和氧化反应是由一些因素引起的,主要有:
    • High operating temperatures运行温度过高
    • Moisture contamination水分污染
    • Particle contamination颗粒污染
    High Operating temperatures高温
    High operating temperatures in the form of mechanical and thermal energy both produce heat which will accelerate lubricant degradation. Heat generated by operating equipment is unavoidable, but excessive heat will lead to increases in the consumption of antioxidant additives. The rate of lubricant oxidation doubles for every 10°C rise in operating temperature above 100°C.
    高温是以机械能和热能的形式产生的热量,这将加速润滑油退化。由运行设备产生的热量不可避免的,但是过高的热量将导致抗氧化添加剂的消耗,在运行温度超过100°C.时,每增加10°C润滑油氧化反应增加一倍。
    Moisture contamination水分污染
    Water contamination adversely affects the lubricants by acting as a catalyst for oxidation and causes rapid additive depletion. Water will react with many oil additives, fracturing the additive into two or more chemical fragments. Water also promotes rusting, corrosion and filter plugging. Common sources of water contamination are heat exchangers and seal leaks, condensation, inadequate reservoir covers and temperature drops that lead to dissolved water becoming free.
    水污染对润滑油是有害的,它充当了氧化催化剂的角色,并能导致添加剂快速消耗。水能与很多油品添加剂反应,使添加剂断裂成2片或多片化学片段。水能促进锈蚀,腐蚀和过滤器堵塞,一般水污染来源于换热器和密封泄漏、冷凝、不合适的油箱盖密封和温差过大,这些都能导致溶解水转化成自由水。
    Particulate contamination颗粒物污染
    Particulate contamination occurs in many forms within in-service oil, causing abrasive wear, fatigue and erosion. Additional contamination is evident whenever dirt particles circulate through the system at high pressure and at high speed.
    颗粒污染物以多种形式出现在在用油中,能导致磨损、故障和侵蚀,每当有污物颗粒在系统中高压和高速循环时,外来污染物可以明显的看出来。
    Airborne dirt particle contamination is a major contamination source. Light enough to float in air these particles can be introduced in exposed reservoirs as the oil level goes down. Oil reservoirs with levels that change frequently are most at risk to large amounts of dirt and airborne contamination. This is commonly how new oil delivered from oil companies becomes contaminated.
    空气中的脏颗粒物是只要的污染源,它们足够轻,能漂浮在空气中,这些颗粒能侵入到暴漏的油箱里,随液面下降。油箱液面频繁变化就会有大量脏物和空媒污染物出现的危险,一般新油从石油公司出来都会被污染。
    Particulate contaminated lubricant provides reduced lubricating properties and increases friction that results in heat generation.
    受颗粒污染的润滑油都会降低润滑性能和增加摩擦生热。
    During oxidation, polymerisation causes sticky molecular structures, commonly referred to as “sludge”. Sludge is a resinous like substance that is darker in colour and leaves deposits throughout the entire lubrication system. Sludge is often why lubricant will darken during its time in use.
    在氧化反应期间,聚合作用是导致分子结构粘性,一般被称为“油泥”油泥是一种树脂,其本身颜色暗淡,沉积到整个润滑系统,油泥通常是导致在用油发暗的原因。
    With sludge molecules being microscopic in size, the molecules are not removed by some traditional filter systems. Combined with their sticky molecular structure and corrosive effect, lubricant sludge will directly affect the reliability and efficiency of all systems it is found within.
Oxidation by-products cause more oxidation, starting a cycle where the more by-products are present, the faster oxidation accelerates. Quickly the level of oxidation will reach a point where the lubricant becomes destroyed by a change in its molecular structure and must be replaced with new oil.
    由于油泥的分子是很微小的粒子,通过传统的过滤装置不能被脱除,它与其它的粘性分子结构结合会有腐蚀作用。油泥出现在系统内,会直接影响系统的可靠性和效率。氧化副产物导致更多的氧化发生,在更多的副产物出现的地方开始循环,使氧化速度更快。氧化程度加快,达到一个饱和点,使得润滑油分子结构发生变化,并且此时需要更换新油。
    Preventing lubricant Oxidation阻止润滑油氧化
    Rapid lubricant degradation will occur when the additive quantity falls below critical level, at this point the rate of oxidation will increase due  to the lubricant not having enough additives to counteract oxidation.
    当添加剂的量降低到临界点以下时,润滑油快速退化,在这个时候,氧化速率将增加,导致润滑油没有添加剂来抵消氧化。
    The PROPEL Oil Management process includes monitoring of active antioxidant additive to determine the level of lubricant remaining useful life (% RUL), moisture contamination and particulate cleanliness level.
    推进油品管理包括监控抗氧化剂来确定润滑油剩余寿命(RUL),水分污染和颗粒物水平。
    By lubricant condition monitoring and renewal, additive levels do not deplete below critical levels, preventing lubricant degradation and waste.   PROPEL Oil Management will renew lubricant to as good as new specification (or higher) before oxidation occurs, preventing costly lubricant replacement.
    通过润滑油状态监控和再生,在添加剂水平低于临界点时不被耗尽,阻止润滑油退化和浪费。在氧化发生前,通过POM(推进油品管理)将使润滑油再生,使其与新油的标准相当或超过,阻止高昂的润滑油更换成本。
    PROPEL Oil Management – Professionally Renewed Oil Prolongs Equipment Life.
    推进油品管理—专业延长设备的使用寿命。